ATMEGA32U4

From Nottinghack Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
ATMEGA32U4
[[{{{image}}}|border|frameless|220px|center]]
Primary Contact Michael Erskine
Created {{{created}}}
Completed {{{completeddate}}}
Dormant {{{dormantdate}}}
Version {{{version}}}
Members {{{members}}}
Manufacturer {{{manufacturer}}}
Model {{{model}}}
Location [[{{{location}}}]]
Status In Progress
Type Members Project
Live Status {{{livestatus}}}
QR code

Many hackers wish to produce a USB device that presents itself as a HID joypad, keyboard, or mouse to a PC or Pi to provide interesting interactions and I/O opportunities in a "standardised" manner. The Arduino Micro and more recently the Leonardo use a micro with an inbuilt USB peripheral device that can be repurposed directly. Previously the Arduino boards used a second small micro or dedicated USB chip (essentially another micro) to perform the USB-serial task but the cost of this additional device was high (often more than the micro itself) and that essential USB device feature soon found itself integrated into a number of Atmel chips. This was an opportunity for the Arduino project to divorce itself from a massive dependence on FTDI (in good time for #FTDIGATE !!) and for hackers to get involved with the delights of the at90usb82, atmega16u2, etc. as secondary processors for USB comms.

Time rolls on and the excitement of the brilliant but non-open Minimus project dies down to find a number of crazy-cheap options where the USB chip is the main chip. The Atmega32U4 can be found on the Arduino Micro (currently for about £20) but also on the wonderful Teensy 2.0 and some really cheap little "Pro Micro" boards from China that at £4 each are cheaper than buying just the chip from here in the UK (in reasonable quantities). Myself (Michael E) and Spencer have ordered some of these bonkers-cheap units for initial testing and evaluation. They would appear to be clones of the Sparkfun Pro Micro https://www.sparkfun.com/products/12640

Info Dump

Initial Works for DELIVERY 1

  • board inspection: -
    • what is included other than the MCU and a 16MHz crystal?
    • what is missing other than the ICSP header?
  • programming the board as an Arduino with Arduino IDE
  • programming with dfu-programmer and avr-gcc, avr-libc, etc.
  • what bootloader is provided? The Teensy 2.0 HALFKAY?

Chip markings (from ebay photos until we receive our first delivery)

   ATMEL
   MEGA32U4
   -MU
   1448E    TH
   A2N7XA

Initial risks and mitigations: -

  • not a real ATMEL chip or bad batch/revision
  • closer inspection of chip markings and initial firmware tests
  • check JTAG IDs and Device Identification Register (26.3.2 in datasheet)
  • bad oscillator circuitry or configuration
  • pinout mapping for Arduino/teensy/Micro


    J1  |USBu|    
   TX0          RAW
   RX1          GND
   GND          RST
   GND          VCC
     2          A3
     3          A2
     4          A1
     5          A0
     6          15
     7          14
     8          16
     9          10
  +----------------+

Michael's USB-HID Work

Origins: -

New project - very similar...


Test for ProMicro with 8 inputs and keyboard output: -

 1 static uint8_t bprev;
 2 static uint8_t bnew;
 3 
 4 const int pmin = 2;
 5 const int pmax = 9;
 6 
 7 
 8 void setup() {
 9   
10   for(int i = pmin; i <= pmax; i++){
11     pinMode(i, INPUT_PULLUP);
12   }
13   Serial.begin(9600);
14   Keyboard.begin();
15   bprev = bnew = btn_read();
16 }
17 
18 void loop() {
19   bnew = btn_read();
20   if(bnew != bprev){
21     Keyboard.write('z');
22     Serial.print("btns = ");
23     Serial.println(bnew, HEX);
24     bprev = bnew;
25   }
26   // force change with any serial input
27   if(Serial.available() > 0) {
28       int b = Serial.read();
29       Serial.print("RX: ");
30       Serial.println(b, DEC);
31       bprev = ~bprev;
32   }
33 }
34 
35 uint8_t btn_read(void) {
36   uint8_t v = 0;
37   for(int i = pmin; i <= pmax; i++){
38     bitWrite(v, i-pmin, digitalRead(i));
39   }  
40   return v;  
41 }


Test for ProMicro with 8 inputs, debounce, multitasking and serial output: -

  1 /* Pro Micro Test Code
  2    by: Nathan Seidle
  3    modified by: Jim Lindblom
  4    SparkFun Electronics
  5    date: September 16, 2013
  6    license: Public Domain - please use this code however you'd like.
  7    It's provided as a learning tool.
  8 
  9    This code is provided to show how to control the SparkFun
 10    ProMicro's TX and RX LEDs within a sketch. It also serves
 11    to explain the difference between Serial.print() and
 12    Serial1.print().
 13 
 14    modified by: Michael Erskine
 15    Nottingham Hackspace
 16    date: August 28th, 2015
 17    Added digital inputs from 2-9 with debounce and simple multitasking
 18    
 19 */
 20 
 21 int RXLED = 17;  // The RX LED has a defined Arduino pin
 22 // The TX LED was not so lucky, we'll need to use pre-defined
 23 // macros (TXLED1, TXLED0) to control that.
 24 // (We could use the same macros for the RX LED too -- RXLED1,
 25 //  and RXLED0.)
 26 
 27 void setup()
 28 {
 29   pinMode(RXLED, OUTPUT);  // Set RX LED as an output
 30   // TX LED is set as an output behind the scenes
 31 
 32   Serial.begin(9600); //This pipes to the serial monitor
 33   Serial1.begin(9600); //This is the UART, pipes to sensors attached to board
 34 
 35   inputs_setup();
 36 }
 37 
 38 const int da_start = 2;
 39 const int da_num = 4;
 40 static uint8_t da_inputs = 0;
 41 
 42 void inputs_setup(void) {
 43   for(int i = 0; i < da_num; i++) {
 44     pinMode(da_start + i, INPUT_PULLUP);
 45   }
 46   da_inputs = inputs_read();
 47 }
 48 
 49 uint8_t inputs_read(void)
 50 {
 51   uint8_t da_samp = 0;
 52   for(int i = 0; i < da_num; i++) {
 53     bitWrite(da_samp, i, (digitalRead(da_start + i) ? 0 : 1));
 54   }
 55   return da_samp;
 56 }
 57 
 58 void loop()
 59 {
 60   task_led_toggle();
 61   task_inputs();
 62   task_serial_read();
 63 }
 64 
 65 void task_inputs(void)
 66 {
 67   static uint32_t last;
 68   uint32_t now = millis();
 69   if(now - last > 5) {
 70     last = now;
 71     uint8_t da_samp = inputs_read();
 72     uint8_t toggle;
 73     da_samp = debounce(da_samp, &toggle);
 74     if(da_samp != da_inputs) {
 75       da_inputs = da_samp;
 76       Serial.print("Inputs: ");
 77       Serial.println(da_inputs, BIN);
 78     }
 79   }
 80 }
 81 
 82 void task_led_toggle(void)
 83 {
 84   static uint32_t last;
 85   static bool on = false;
 86   uint32_t now = millis();
 87   if(now - last > 1000) {
 88     last = now;
 89     // Serial.println("Hello world");  // Print "Hello World" to the Serial Monitor
 90     // Serial1.println("Hello!");  // Print "Hello!" over hardware UART
 91     if(on){
 92       digitalWrite(RXLED, LOW);   // set the LED on
 93       TXLED0; //TX LED is not tied to a normally controlled pin
 94     } else {
 95       digitalWrite(RXLED, HIGH);    // set the LED off
 96       TXLED1;
 97     }
 98     on = !on;
 99   }
100 }
101 
102 void task_serial_read(void) {
103   // TODO
104 
105 }
106 
107 /*
108  * http://www.compuphase.com/electronics/debouncing.htm
109  */
110 unsigned char debounce(unsigned char sample, unsigned char *toggle)
111 {
112     static unsigned char state, cnt0, cnt1;
113     unsigned char delta;
114 
115     delta = sample ^ state;
116     cnt1 = (cnt1 ^ cnt0) & delta;
117     cnt0 = ~cnt0 & delta;
118 
119     *toggle = delta & ~(cnt0 | cnt1);
120     state ^= *toggle;
121 
122     return state;
123 }


Test for ProMicro with USB HID joystick, 8 inputs, debounce, multitasking and serial output (NB: needs mods to Arduino core USBAPI.h and HID.cpp in \arduino-1.6.5-r2\hardware\arduino\avr\cores\arduino): -

  1 /* Pro Micro Test Code
  2    by: Nathan Seidle
  3    modified by: Jim Lindblom
  4    SparkFun Electronics
  5    date: September 16, 2013
  6    license: Public Domain - please use this code however you'd like.
  7    It's provided as a learning tool.
  8 
  9    This code is provided to show how to control the SparkFun
 10    ProMicro's TX and RX LEDs within a sketch. It also serves
 11    to explain the difference between Serial.print() and
 12    Serial1.print().
 13 
 14    modified by: Michael Erskine
 15    Nottingham Hackspace
 16    date: August 28th, 2015
 17    Added digital inputs from 2-9 with debounce and simple multitasking
 18    
 19 */
 20 
 21 int RXLED = 17;  // The RX LED has a defined Arduino pin
 22 // The TX LED was not so lucky, we'll need to use pre-defined
 23 // macros (TXLED1, TXLED0) to control that.
 24 // (We could use the same macros for the RX LED too -- RXLED1,
 25 //  and RXLED0.)
 26 
 27 // Joystick State
 28 static JoyState_t JoySt;
 29 
 30 void setup()
 31 {
 32   pinMode(RXLED, OUTPUT);  // Set RX LED as an output
 33   // TX LED is set as an output behind the scenes
 34 
 35   Serial.begin(9600); //This pipes to the serial monitor
 36   Serial1.begin(9600); //This is the UART, pipes to sensors attached to board
 37   
 38   JoySt.XAxis = 127;
 39   JoySt.YAxis = 127;
 40   JoySt.Buttons = 0;
 41 
 42   inputs_setup();
 43 }
 44 
 45 const int da_start = 2;
 46 const int da_num = 4;
 47 static uint8_t da_inputs = 0;
 48 
 49 void inputs_setup(void) {
 50   for(int i = 0; i < da_num; i++) {
 51     pinMode(da_start + i, INPUT_PULLUP);
 52   }
 53   da_inputs = inputs_read();
 54 }
 55 
 56 uint8_t inputs_read(void)
 57 {
 58   uint8_t da_samp = 0;
 59   for(int i = 0; i < da_num; i++) {
 60     bitWrite(da_samp, i, (digitalRead(da_start + i) ? 0 : 1));
 61   }
 62   return da_samp;
 63 }
 64 
 65 void loop()
 66 {
 67   task_led_toggle();
 68   task_inputs();
 69   task_serial_read();
 70 }
 71 
 72 void task_inputs(void)
 73 {
 74   static uint32_t last;
 75   uint32_t now = millis();
 76   if(now - last > 5) {
 77     last = now;
 78     uint8_t da_samp = inputs_read();
 79     uint8_t toggle;
 80     da_samp = debounce(da_samp, &toggle);
 81     if(da_samp != da_inputs) {
 82       da_inputs = da_samp;
 83       //Serial.print("Inputs: ");
 84       //Serial.println(da_inputs, BIN);
 85     }
 86 
 87     // Now do the USB HID magic...
 88     // NB: every 5ms max
 89     // JoySt.XAxis = 127 + N64Controller.GetStick_x();
 90     // JoySt.YAxis = 127 + N64Controller.GetStick_y();
 91     // map first two buttons to up and down for testing
 92     if(da_samp & 0x01) // up
 93       JoySt.XAxis = 0;
 94     else if( da_samp & 0x02) // down
 95       JoySt.XAxis = 255;
 96     else 
 97       JoySt.XAxis = 127;
 98     // leave Y centred for now
 99     JoySt.YAxis = 127;
100     JoySt.Buttons = da_samp;
101     Joystick.setState(&JoySt);
102   }
103 }
104 
105 void task_led_toggle(void)
106 {
107   static uint32_t last;
108   static bool on = false;
109   uint32_t now = millis();
110   if(now - last > 1000) {
111     last = now;
112     // Serial.println("Hello world");  // Print "Hello World" to the Serial Monitor
113     // Serial1.println("Hello!");  // Print "Hello!" over hardware UART
114     if(on){
115       digitalWrite(RXLED, LOW);   // set the LED on
116       TXLED0; //TX LED is not tied to a normally controlled pin
117     } else {
118       digitalWrite(RXLED, HIGH);    // set the LED off
119       TXLED1;
120     }
121     on = !on;
122   }
123 }
124 
125 void task_serial_read(void) {
126   // TODO
127 
128 }
129 
130 /*
131  * http://www.compuphase.com/electronics/debouncing.htm
132  */
133 unsigned char debounce(unsigned char sample, unsigned char *toggle)
134 {
135     static unsigned char state, cnt0, cnt1;
136     unsigned char delta;
137 
138     delta = sample ^ state;
139     cnt1 = (cnt1 ^ cnt0) & delta;
140     cnt0 = ~cnt0 & delta;
141 
142     *toggle = delta & ~(cnt0 | cnt1);
143     state ^= *toggle;
144 
145     return state;
146 }

Success!!!!

I now have the holy grail of full Arduino IDE and APIs for with HID joypad on the Pro Micro clone - all working and tested. --Michael Erskine (talk) 15:38, 28 August 2015 (UTC)


Joypad code now on Github

The USB HID Joypad code is now in Github.

https://github.com/msemtd/promicro-joypad

You will need to edit some of the USB HID files in the Arduino core of 1.6.5 (ask for details). In time I should probably create a completely separate board profile but that's a lot of work! --Michael Erskine (talk) 09:42, 1 September 2015 (UTC)

Wired into Defender Control Panel

Direct soldering to 8-way Alarm cable x 2 + 1 GND wire and mounted in Spencer's tiny 3D printed case. Replaces a USB dancemat controller that I was never 100% happy with!

Large-style Pro Micro board

I have taken delivery of another 10 boards at a cost of £2.35 each (including postage). --Michael Erskine (talk) 09:30, 4 September 2015 (UTC)

These are the same technical specification and functionally equivalent however are slightly larger on a PCB of 23 x 40 mm, the bigger ATMEGA32U4 package, and a Mini-USB socket rather than a Micro-USB socket.

ProMicro Neopixel

Code for neopixel test using simplest possible setup

 1 #include <Adafruit_NeoPixel.h>
 2 #ifdef __AVR__
 3   #include <avr/power.h>
 4 #endif
 5 
 6 #define PIN            21
 7 #define NUMPIXELS      1
 8 Adafruit_NeoPixel pixels = Adafruit_NeoPixel(NUMPIXELS, PIN, NEO_GRB + NEO_KHZ800);
 9 
10 // TODO serial comms not interfering with the pixel timing at all
11 // allow commands to set brightness as hex value 00 - FF
12 // allow commands to set colour as RGB hex value 000000 - FFFFFF
13 // flashing?
14 
15 void setup() {
16   pixels.begin();
17 }
18 
19 
20 
21 void loop() {
22   pixels.setBrightness(10);  
23   for(int i=0;i<NUMPIXELS;i++){
24     pixels.setPixelColor(i, pixels.Color(10,10,10));
25     pixels.show();
26     delay(1000);
27     pixels.setPixelColor(i, pixels.Color(0,0,0));
28     pixels.show();
29     delay(500);
30   }
31   rainbow(25);
32 }
33 
34 void rainbow(uint8_t wait) {
35   uint16_t i, j;
36   for(j=0; j<256; j++) {
37     for(i=0; i<pixels.numPixels(); i++) {
38       pixels.setPixelColor(i, Wheel((i+j) & 255));
39     }
40     pixels.show();
41     delay(wait);
42   }
43 }
44 
45 // Input a value 0 to 255 to get a color value.
46 // The colours are a transition r - g - b - back to r.
47 uint32_t Wheel(byte WheelPos) {
48   WheelPos = 255 - WheelPos;
49   if(WheelPos < 85) {
50     return pixels.Color(255 - WheelPos * 3, 0, WheelPos * 3);
51   }
52   if(WheelPos < 170) {
53     WheelPos -= 85;
54     return pixels.Color(0, WheelPos * 3, 255 - WheelPos * 3);
55   }
56   WheelPos -= 170;
57   return pixels.Color(WheelPos * 3, 255 - WheelPos * 3, 0);
58 }